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   In Africa, there are actually two variations of annualism primarily defined by the region where the species are found. 

   East Africa is home to the true annual species including the many forms of Nothobranchius and its more restricted sub-groups Aphyobranchius and Paranothobranchius.  These species evolved to survived the extremes in weather, with eggs surviving through the dry season in a form of hibernation and hatching when the wet season causes water to once again fill rivers, ponds and pools.  In some areas, the flood plains retain water in pools and ditches long enough for the fish to hatch, reach maturity and guarantee the next generation.

In certain areas of West Africa, the same can be said for a few species, mostly denoted by members of the Pronothobranchius sub-group in and around the Gambia River.

The other form of annualism is somewhat different. In West Africa many species of Killifish have evolved a mechanism which allows the eggs to enter hibernation even when the waters do not fully dry out.  Members of Fundulopanchax, in particular, but also Callopanchax, exhibit these traits.  Eggs of these species might well develop fully and hatch in water, but eggs are also buried along the edges of pools and streams where they undergo a partial drying - perhaps as long as a couple of months.  This guarantees those species will survive an extended drought, but also continue to reproduce in a continuous way.

Recent Posts

  • Upstate New York Killifish Association will hold its monthly meeting on Sunday, Aug. 5th at noon in the Casa Too Mucha restaurant in New Hartford NY. (13 Genesee Street).  Meals are purchased from the restaurant.  This is be an open discussion meeting with a focus on plans for the upcoming Keystone Class in Pennsylvania.  There will be several pairs of killies purchased for the auction for this meeting including Aus. nigripinnis, Chrom. biv. Lagos Red, Chrom. splendopleure and N. fuscotaeniatus.

  • Several years ago I took this picture at an AKA or NEW convention, but for some silly reason I did not document the species.  Does anyone recognize it?

  • I have been staring at KillieNutz Online for some time now and wondering what I could/should do to make it an active site that people make a regular stop on their internet travels.  At one time several years ago, KillieNutz was a very active website.  Now it is rarely visited. I came to the realization, the best way to do this is to ask.  So what would excite you enough to visit KillieNutz regularly?  Please let me know either here as a comment or send me and email at killienutz@killienutz.com . Some things I am implementing starting today include: AKA/Killie Clubs News (including international groups. (I could sure use some help with people sending me what is going on anywhere.) Daily checks on new species/name changes. An ongoing review of available killies in the hobby. Regular updates to all species of killifish. (This takes time to prepare and put online.) Forums that are active (That is up to you – join KillieNutz and post away) Please make suggestions as to what I can do to make KillieNutz the one place you want to check out regularly. I will appreciate any assistance.

  •  The next meeting of Upstate New York Killifish Association is set for July 8th in the Utica, NY region.  We will be meeting at Noon in our regular spot: Casa Too Mucha, 13 Genesee St, New Hartford, NY.  Members are responsible for their own meals (via the restaurant’s menu).  There will be a program and an auction at this meeting.

  • UNYKA held its first meeting since May to begin the process of fully reactivating the club by appointing officers to oversee the group.  Several topics of discussion were brought forward. Dr. Dan Nielsen was appointed as President. Len Futterman accepted the post of Interim Vice President Mary Teelin became the Secretary for UNYKA Scott Schlueter is now the Treasurer. Tom Grady was appointed to run the website and act as correspondence secretary. The club is now in the process of creating a new set of Bylaws and will  be applying for an EIN and 401c Tax Exempt status.  Scott Schlueter is in charge of the process. Dues have been set at $15 per person or $18. for a family. UNYKA will meet on the first Sunday of each month unless otherwise designated (holidays, etc.) except for December through March.   The next meeting is July 1st at Casa Too Mucha in New Hartford NY (Utica)

  • Step 2 of reopnening my fishroom is happening today. My local heating providers are coming in to install a natural gas heating system into my fish-room (basement) which should save me a ton of money from the past use of electric heaters.  We added a gas furnace last summer for the house and saved a ton of money over fuel oil and electric, bot of which we tried.  It will probably be the first time since I bought this house I will feel good about the way the area is kept warm during the winter.  Over the past several years, I have lost a number of fish to power outages and simply inconsistent heating of the room.  This system should take care of the heating quite well. Wish me well!

  • It’s only been a couple weeks since we last met, but Upstate NY Killifish Association is scheduled to meet this Sunday (June 3rd) at noon in the Casa Too Mucha, 13 Genesee St, New Hartford, NY.  This is a popular Tex Mex place where we can hold our regular meetings for the next few months.   The business part of the meeting should be short since we met a couple weeks ago. There will be a program on New Killies in the Hobby.  We also plan to have an auction, so feel free to bring any fish, plants, what have you.

  • Yes, I am making some changes in the overall operation of KillieNutz Online.  I have done this a few times over the years, but I think this time I have some ideas that should make navigation easier for most users and a bit more interesting.  One of the things I enjoy is compiling information mainly for my own use, but there is no reason not to share what I come across.  Some of it is information about new species, breeding techniques, killifish care and the overall hobby.  But I also like some other fish outside the killie hobby.  I may very well start adding sections about those. Anyway, I just wanted my friends and users to know I am actively playing with both my fish and my website again.  

  • Upstate NY Killifish Association will be holding a meeting on Sunday, May 20th in New Berlin NY. The get-together will be at Frankie’s Pizza on Route 8 (center of downtown, diagonally across from ‘Stewart’s Gas Station’in New Berlin at noon.   Attendees may purchase food from the restaurant.  The plans are to discuss the reformation of the club, meeting plans and hold a small auction along with general killie chat.  Anyone (or not) in upstate NY is welcome to attend.

  • I just thought some of you would be interested to learn I am working on the second volume of The Killifish Encyclopedia. This volume will be focused on African Annuals. (Gee … A on the list) I am currently looking for photographs for the majority of species and will provide a list of what I need.  Any photographer whose pictures are used will receive a free copy of the book as a thank you, but since the sales numbers of a limited book like this are so low, I cannot afford to pay for each photo.  I am seeking many species that I can photograph myself.